February 2018 ESM Literature

By February 5, 2018 Recent Literature

Adolescent Studies

“Findings indicated that hedonic hunger has the potential to fluctuate, and conceptualization of the variable as both trait and state may be most appropriate. Adolescents with controlled dietary motivation may be vulnerable to the influence of hedonic hunger and prone to eating higher quantities of starchy foods. Adolescents with autonomous dietary motivation may be less vulnerable to hedonic hunger and less likely to consume fast food.”

“As a follow up to the 2014 and 2015 FDLA conference presentations, this Pearls of Wisdom session will expose conference audience to the latest features offered by SKIES, the innovative online learning platform designed to engage STEM students in all grades in a media-rich environment built for collaboration and interaction. The session will focus on the basics of creating a multimedia lesson with branches for collecting student feedback, group discussions, knowledge maps, and more. The audience will be encouraged to download the SKIES mobile app to their device to participate in the session.”

“Impairment in social communication is the primary deficit in  school-aged  children  with autism  spectrum  disorder (ASD).  Research  has  shown  that  there  are  efficacious interventions to address social communication deficits, yet their  delivery is hampered by the  lack  of  human and time resources.   Emerging   assistive   technologies,such   as smartglasses,  may  be  able  to  help  augment  the social communication interventions currently provided    by human educators and therapists. While emerging research suggests assistive  socio-emotional coaching smartglasses can be effective and usable in research settings, they have yet to be studied amidst the complex social, physical,and time-constrained  environment  of  the  school  classroom.”

Alcohol & Drugs

Diet & Nutrition

Emotion & Regulation

“People in relationships frequently rely on their romantic partners for support through life’s everyday stresses and strains. While the past several decades of research have clarified many of the ways in which support transactions can be both beneficial and harmful to recipients, we lack a comparably clear understanding of the factors that enable or hinder effective support provision in everyday life. The current project addressed this gap by explicating the role of daily emotions and emotion-related processes in the facilitation of social support between romantic partners. Specifically, the study aimed to determine whether 1) partners’ similar daily negative emotional experiences yield better or worse daily support quality, and 2) whether a person’s ability to accurately perceive the day to day negative emotion states of her or his partner can enhance the quality of daily enacted support.”

“Using 14-day daily diary data from 81 samesex couples, the purpose of this study was to examine whether there was an association between daily perceptions of stress via negative family reactions to partner and negative partner-related emotions, and whether attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) moderated this association. Individuals’ perceptions of stress via negative family reactions was found to be positively associated with their reports of negative emotions about one’s partner.”

“This study examined couples’ perceptions of each other’s daily affect, using a daily diary methodology. Specifically, we tested the extent to which couples accurately inferred how their partner was feeling (empathic accuracy) and the extent to which spouses used their own feelings as a gauge for how their partner was feeling (assumed similarity). We also tested for indirect accuracy in couples’ perceptions; that is, that assumed similarity in the context of actual similarity leads to empathic accuracy.”

“The ability of detecting emotions is essential in different fields such as user experience (UX), affective computing, and psychology. This paper explores the possibility of detecting emotions through user-generated bodily sensation maps (BSMs). The theoretical basis that inspires this work is the proposal by Nummenmaa et al. (2014) of BSMs for 14 emotions. To make it easy for users to create a BSM of how they feel, and convenient for researchers to acquire and classify users’ BSMs, we created a mobile app, called EmoPaint. The app includes an interface for BSM creation, and an automatic classifier that matches the created BSM with the BSMs for the 14 emotions.”

“This study revisits the structure of emotions by using a co-occurrence network analysis. While previous studies have examined the structure of emotions primarily through interindividual correlations, we investigated how often and which specific positive and negative emotions occur together within individuals.”

“Despite envy’s importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)-the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory.”

General Psychological Topics

“In this chapter, we first explain what is meant by between-person variability (or interindividual differences) and within-person variability (or intraindividual variability and change) in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Second, we describe two quantitative daily diary studies that examined both between-person and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour.”

“Ambidextrous leadership involves a combination of leader behaviours that stimulate employee exploration (“opening behaviour”) and behaviours that facilitate exploitation of new ideas (“closing behaviour”). Organizational psychologists have recently proposed that ambidextrous leadership positively predicts employee innovation. Consistently, we hypothesized that the interaction between leaders’ daily opening and closing behaviours (i.e., ambidextrous leadership) predicts employees’ daily self-reported innovative performance”

“Many public organizations implement teleworking: an organizational innovation expected to improve the working conditions of public servants. However, it is unclear to what extent teleworking is beneficial for public servants. This study adds to the literature by studying the effects of teleworking on a day-to-day basis.”

“A diary study was conducted to investigate the relationships between headache activity and basic psychological needs satisfaction. This preliminary study is the first to show that headache is related to reduced basic psychological needs satisfaction, providing a potential account for one mechanism by which headache may negatively affect quality of life”

“The goal of the study was to evaluate whether the relationship between social support and religious coping strategies and psychological health is different for African American/Black college students compared to Caucasian/White college students. It was hypothesized that African American/Black students would use more social support and religious coping strategies than Caucasians/Whites, and that race would moderate the relation between these coping strategies and both positive and negative affect.”

“This daily diary study examines the different functions of personality trait extraversion in shaping proactive behavior at both between-person and within-person levels. Building on the affect-as-resources perspective, the authors propose that personality trait extraversion is positively related to higher levels of high-activated PA, and consequently more proactive behavior at the between-person level. However, it mitigates the positive relationship between daily high-activated PA and daily proactive behavior at the within-person level.”

“Vulvodynia is a prevalent idiopathic vulvovaginal pain condition that interferes with the sexual and mental health of affected couples. Research has underscored that psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression, contribute to its development and maintenance and associated sexual impairment. However, the daily role of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the pain and sexuality outcomes of couples coping with vulvodynia is not well understood. Using a dyadic daily experience method, 127 women (Mage = 26.21, SD = 6.24) diagnosed with vulvodynia and their male partners (Mage = 27.44, SD = 7.29) reported on anxiety and depressive symptoms, pain, sexual function and sexual distress over a period of eight weeks.”

“Our objectives were to measure reporting differences between sexual behavior data from daily diary and retrospective estimates and to assess the utility of using smartphones to collect sexual behavior data from a college student population. We found that college students overreported their sexual behavior on the retrospective survey compared to their daily diary reports (ps < .001; Cohen’s ds ≥ 1.51). Participants provided positive and constructive feedback.”

“Based on the theoretical foundations of the caregiving system model, which holds that prosocial behavior can be conceptualized in relation to a neurobiological stress-buffering mechanism, we addressed the question of whether daily volunteering yields buffering effects in terms of suppressing a neuroendocrine response (i.e., salivary cortisol) to daily stressors. We used daily diary data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE II), which is part of the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS II), a nationally representative survey of middle-aged and older adults.”

“In this paper, we consider the problem of mobilizing Spot Tasks, a special category of workflows within web-based enterprise applications. Spot tasks are simple workflows that can be finished by interacting with only one page of the application. We present Taskr, a do-it-yourself mobilization solution that users, regardless of their skills, can rely on to mobilize their spot tasks in a robust fashion. Taskr uses remote computing with application refactoring to achieve code-less mobilization and allows for flexible mobile delivery wherein users can execute their spot tasks through Twitter, Email or a native mobile app. We implement a prototype of Taskr and show through user studies that it has the potential to reduce task burden significantly.”

“This dissertation examines the relationship between religious mobile app design and use in Catholic and Islamic contexts. Understanding this relationship is important because it provides a clearer picture of how mobile technology is being integrated into social life, how religious practices are evolving as they are engaged in new technological environments, and how different technological and religious affordances create a mobile space for religious practice.”

“Self-licensing, employing reasons to justify indulgence, may help resolve the conflict between immediate temptations and long-term goals in favor of the former. It was hypothesized that this conflict-resolving potential of self-licensing may benefit self-regulation over time. With a momentary assessment design, we examined how self-licensing affects self-regulatory ability and the capacity to deal with subsequent self-regulatory conflicts.”

“Creativity and innovation are essential agents for change processes and accelerating technical development. Having to face challenges, such as demographic change, organizations require individuals who are creative and innovative at each age.”

“The present manuscript presents two tests of the hypothesis that social media use decreases social interaction, leading to decreased well-being.”

“In the first study, designed as a lagged survey study, we found that abusive supervision is negatively associated with employees’ job performance and positively associated with employees’ turnover intentions. As anticipated, our results also found that family motivation moderates the direct relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ work behaviors. Furthermore, these results were then replicated and expanded in an experience sampling study. Consistent with our predictions, we found that intrinsic motivation acts as a mediator between abusive supervision and employees’ work behaviors and family motivation has the capacity to compensate for the absence of intrinsic motivation.”

“Results indicated that individuals with elevated trait body dissatisfaction were reliably different from those with healthier body image in terms of average state body dissatisfaction ratings, but not for inertia or instability. State mean and trait body dissatisfaction uniquely predicted eating pathology, although their predictive accuracy for clinical caseness was comparable.”

“Conscientiousness and neuroticism were studied as situation contingencies in a sample of 124 managers. Experience sampling measures of situational characteristics, state conscientiousness and state neuroticism were collected before, during and after the performance of a range of tasks completed in an executive training program of five 3-day sessions, conducted over two years. Six months following training, supervisor ratings of participants’ job performance were also collected.”

“Previous research on the determinants of homesickness has tended to produce inconsistent results and relied mostly on cross-sectional assessments. To capture the longitudinal perspective, we conducted a smartphone app-based study, monitoring the emergence and volatility of homesickness in international university exchange students (n = 148). Applying an experience sampling method (ESM), homesickness was measured every second day over a period of 3 months followed by a post hoc questionnaire to assess potential moderators.”

“It has been theorized that state the levels of self-control depletion (as caused by negative affect and restraint) may lead to binge eating (BE) when individuals also endorse momentary expectancies that eating will make them feel better (EE). Given commonalities in precipitants of BE across populations, the current study tested this theory in a sample of adults with obesity using ecological momentary assessment (EMA).”

Medical Topics

“Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) is currently the only FDA-approved soft-tissue filler indicated for augmentation of the dorsal hand. Although the treatment is generally safe and effective, adverse side effects such as swelling and edema postinjection are common and can sometimes be debilitating.In this study, the authors explore the utility of triamcinolone acetate coinjection with CaHA to the dorsal hands to mitigate adverse effects and improve patient experience.”

“Evidence from a variety of chronic disorders has shown the benefits of self-management in health care. Patient education and remote self-monitoring through an App can offer Crohn′s disease patients the opportunity to take better care of themselves. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of CD patients towards mobile phone-based remote monitoring.”

“Digitization in healthcare is progressing steadily. While currently processes are being optimized and processes are being facilitated, the breakthrough of digital medicine is still forthcoming. Digital medicine includes applications that focus on the patient and give them the promise of better care. Many digital health applications are raising attention in traditional healthcare, as they are increasingly showing evidence.This report discusses the question of the impact of digital health applications on healthcare in the near future by evaluating the effect of software used to improve diagnosis, therapy and the communication between patients and healthcare professionals.”

“Digital tools play an important role in supporting front-line health workers who deliver primary care. This paper explores the current state of efforts undertaken to move away from single-purpose applications of digital health towards integrated systems and solutions that align with national strategies. Through examples from health information systems, data and health worker training, this paper demonstrates how governments and stakeholders are working to integrate digital health services.”

“Patients with IBD are ideal candidates for mobile-based remote monitoring care that is centred on enhanced symptom tracking and improved communication with care teams. The objective of this pragmatic randomised controlled trial is to determine the impact of the HealthPROMISE app in improving outcomes quality of care [QOC] and quality of life [QOL] as compared with a patient education app.”

“Pharmaceutical companies have been forever challenged with both rising development costs and the need to find novel ways to differentiate the candidate drugs. Recent advances in digital health (DH) technology, including wearables, in-home clinical devices, and sensors, have enabled a growing array of available data endpoints, making these devices an invaluable tool in clinical programs. The below analysis focuses on advantages and hurdles in implementation of selected DH technologies in drug development.”

“Online substance-use interventions are effective in producing reductions in harmful-use. However, low user engagement rates with online interventions reduces overall effectiveness of interventions. Identifying optimal strategies with which to engage users with online substance-use interventions may improve usage rates and subsequent effectiveness.”

“Digital health encompasses a wide range of novel digital technologies related to health and medicine. Such technologies rely on recent advances in the collection and analysis of ever increasing amounts of data from both patients and healthy citizens. Along with new opportunities, however, come new ethical and policy challenges. These range from the need to adapt current evidence-based standards, to issues of privacy, oversight, accountability and public trust as well as national and international data governance and management. This review illustrates key issues and challenges facing the rapidly unfolding digital health paradigm and reflects on the impact of big data in medical research and clinical practice both internationally and in Switzerland. It concludes by emphasising five conditions that will be crucial to fulfil in order to foster innovation and fair benefit sharing in digital health.”

“Fecal incontinence (FI) is characterized by uncontrolled passage of solid or liquid stool. We aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of FI in a large sample of United States residents. We recruited a representative sample of patients in October 2015 to complete the National Gastrointestinal (GI) Survey; a mobile app called MyGiHealth was used to systematically collect data on GI symptoms.”

“At present, CNN models for diabetic retinopathy detection have become a research focus and have achieved good results in experiments. However, still, these models have not been wildly used in real practices. The main reasons are the lack of interpretability and accessibility. Therefore, this paper proposed a new method which improved the interpretability through visualization based on results, and which increased the accessibility through web services and a message queue framework. Besides, in this paper, a report system was designed for doctors and a mobile APP was designed for patients. By means of that, the method was verified in real practices.”

“Cloud-based glucose monitoring programs allow users with diabetes to wirelessly synchronize their glucometers to their mobile phones. They also provide visualization and remote access of their data through its mobile app. There have been very few studies evaluating their effectiveness in managing diabetes among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app to improve daily average blood glucose (BG) levels and increase BG monitoring frequency.”

“The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug in the United States with a digital ingestion tracking system. Abilify MyCite (aripiprazole tablets with sensor; Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc., Rockville, MD) has an ingestible sensor embedded in the pill that records that the medication was taken. The product is approved for treatment of schizophrenia, for acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, and for use as an add-on treatment for depression in adults. Abilify MyCite is the first digital medicine system to be cleared by the FDA and will be launched with a limited rollout. Consumers can track daily medication intake using the companion mobile app; health care providers can be given access to the information through a Web-based portal.”

“Certified Athletic Trainers (ATC) continue to serve an important role in providing assessment and treatments for athletes with sports-related injuries. They provide a critical safety net due to limited knowledge and misconceptions of concussion held by some youth sports coaches and athletes. However, availability of services from ATCs in rural areas is a challenge. In order to help extend coverage to more rural student athletes, we propose designing a telemedicine app following the mHealth development roadmap from the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes). In this paper we will document contextual inquiry, user requirements capture, design phases, and app evaluation from the targeted user base.”

“As patient communication, engagement, personal health data tracking, and up-to-date information became more efficient through mobile health (mHealth), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other diseases that require behavioral improvements in daily life are now capable of being managed and prevented more effectively. However, to increase patient engagement through mHealth, it is important for the initial design to consider functionality and usability factors and accurately assess user demands during the developmental process so that the app can be used continuously. The purpose of the study was to provide insightful information for developing mHealth service for patients with CVD based on user research to help enhance communication between patients and doctors.”

“Due to the significant prevalence of chronic illnesses in the United States, engaging patients in health promotion activities is imperative. mHealth apps have the ability to complement the family nurse practitioner’s (FNP) prescribed care plan, and offer a user friendly, convenient method to promote healthy behaviors and lessen the prevalence of chronic disease. The purpose of this descriptive, quantitative study was to describe FNPs’ intent to use and use of mHealth apps for health promotion with their patients using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and to determine the types and frequencies of apps recommended by FNPs.”

“Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device.”

“These recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners’ beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals’ practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine.”

“These recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners’ beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals’ practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine.”

“Disease management remains a challenge for many people living with HIV (PLWH). Digital health interventions (DHIs) may assist with overcoming these challenges and reducing burdens on clinical staff; however, there is limited data regarding methods to improve uptake and acceptability of DHIs among PLWH. This qualitative study aimed to assess patient and provider perspectives on the use of DHIs and strategies to promote uptake among PLWH.”

“Research is rapidly extending its focus to develop and evaluate weight management interventions that incorporate eHealth technologies. Comparative effectiveness of eHealth interventions is partly limited by the extensive heterogeneity in intervention design, variation in use of eHealth tools, and expanding development of novel tools to promote weight management. We closely examined, characterized, and categorized the use and function of eHealth tools across a wide range of eHealth interventions for weight management in order to first create a novel schematic framework for eHealth interventions and, second, to evaluate eHealth interventions using this framework.”

“To investigate the short-term effects of a lifestyle modification intervention based on a mobile application (app) linked to a hospital electronic medical record (EMR) system on weight reduction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).”

Physical Activity

“Individual exercise on a given day was associated with more positive marital events and higher daily marital satisfaction; patterns in these results were more consistent for wives than for husbands. Conjoint exercise on a given day was also associated with nearly all marital outcomes for both husbands and wives.”

“A 12-week pilot controlled trial of a physical activity (PA) buddy program was designed for women with young children. Conducted in January 2015 through March 2016, 49 women (mean age = 36.4 ± 4.8 years) were randomized to one of two groups. Both conditions received an in-person session, weekly step goals based on their baseline number of steps, an accelerometer, and its mobile app. Only women assigned to the intervention group brought their buddies and exercised together at least once per week. Buddies also received an accelerometer and its mobile app.”

“It has been posited that the consumption of extra protein (> 0.8 g/kg/d) may be deleterious to bone mineral content. However, there is no direct evidence to show that consuming a high-protein diet results in a demineralization of the skeleton. Thus, the primary endpoint of this randomized controlled trial was to determine if a high-protein diet affected various parameters of whole body and lumbar bone mineral content in exercise-trained women. Subjects were instructed to keep a food diary via the mobile app MyFitnessPal®. Exercise or activity level was not controlled. Subjects were asked to maintain their current levels of exercise.”

“There is a need to reduce physical inactivity and poor sleep health in the adult population to decrease chronic disease rates and the associated burden. Given the high prevalence of these risk behaviours, effective interventions with potential for wide reach are warranted. The aim of this two-arm RCT will be to test the effect of a three month personalised mobile app intervention on two main outcomes: minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and overall sleep quality. In addition, between-group changes in health-related quality of life and mental health status will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The pre-specified mediators and moderators include social cognitive factors, the neighbourhood environment, health (BMI, depression, anxiety, stress), sociodemographic factors (age, gender, education) and app usage. Assessments will be conducted after three months (primary endpoint) and six months (follow-up). The intervention will provide access to a specifically developed mobile app, through which participants can set goals for active minutes, daily step counts, resistance training, sleep times and sleep hygiene practice. The app also allows participants to log their behaviours daily and view progress bars as well as instant feedback in relation to goals. The personalised support system will consist of weekly summary reports, educational and instructional materials, prompts on disengagement and weekly facts.”

“Individuals living with more experienced meaning, or meaning salience, may be more likely to engage in health behaviors including physical activity. This study examined daily meaning salience and physical activity in previously inactive exercise initiates.Inactive adults (N = 80, 78% female, Mage = 43 years, SD = 11 years) intending to increase physical activity participated in a daily diary study.”

“The aim of this paper is to explore the hypothesis that an ideographic N-of-1 model can better capture an individual’s stress-behavior pathway (or the lack thereof) and provide useful person-specific predictors of exercise behavior.”

“Higher levels of positive affect and feelings of energy are associated with greater physical activity (PA) and lower sedentary time (ST). However, whether fluctuations in these feelings contribute to the regulation of these behaviors is unclear. This study examined the extent to which subject-level variability (i.e., degree of intraindividual variability) in positive affect and feeling energetic predicted participants’ overall levels of PA and ST.”

“Evaluating adherence to home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) could be challenging due to lack of direct supervision and the complex nature of the rehabilitation model. To measure adherence to home-based PR in the HomeBase trial, participants were encouraged to work towards a goal of at least 30 minutes of whole-body exercise on most days of the week and report their participation using a home exercise diary.”

“Formulift is a newly developed mobile health (mHealth) app that connects to a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) worn on the left thigh. The IMU captures users’ movements as they exercise, and the app analyzes the data to count repetitions in real time and classify users’ exercise technique. The app also offers feedback and guidance to users on exercising safely and effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the Formulift system with three different and realistic types of potential users (beginner gym-goers, experienced gym-goers, and qualified strength and conditioning [S&C] coaches) under a number of categories: (1) usability, (2) functionality, (3) the perceived impact of the system, and (4) the subjective quality of the system. It was also desired to discover suggestions for future improvements to the system.”

Physiological Sensors

Psychopathology

“This study examined excessive reassurance seeking (or positive feedback seeking; PFS) and negative feedback seeking (NFS) in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or no history of mental health difficulties.”

“According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs. This mobile app training exercise consists of users having to pull statements challenging OCD beliefs towards themselves (downwards) and to throw away (push upwards) contra-productive self-statements.”

“Uber, Airbnb, Seamless, Waze-Twenty years ago these concepts were a distant impossibility. Smart phone technology has given programmers, computer scientists and entrepreneurs tools to revolutionize traditional industries like hospitality, transportation and supermarkets. However, the emergence of new technology need not be limited to satisfying basic consumer needs. The ubiquity of smartphones means that technology can also be used to confront pressing social issues, including those in the mental health treatment industry. In a recent paper, Naslund et al. highlight the potential use for smart phone technology in mental health treatment, and address the methods through which intervention can take place.”

“The impact of the new technologies on health professionals practice in PTSD care remains to be determined. The recent evolutions could disrupt the clinical practices and practitioners in their beliefs, ethics and representations, going as far as questioning their professional culture. In the present paper, we conducted an extensive search to highlight the articles which reflect the potential of these new technologies.”

“Rumination is a process of uncontrolled, narrowly focused negative thinking that is often self-referential, and that is a hallmark of depression. Despite its importance, little is known about its cognitive mechanisms. Rumination can be thought of as a specific, constrained form of mind-wandering. Here, we introduce a cognitive model of rumination that we developed on the basis of our existing model of mind-wandering.”

“Negative urgency (NU), the tendency to act impulsively when distressed, is associated with binge eating. Women who believe that eating alleviates negative affect are also more likely to binge eat. Thus, it is hypothesized that the individuals with high levels of NU, and who endorse these eating expectancies, will binge eat the following acute distress. This study tested these hypotheses using ecological momentary assessment.”

“Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments.”

“People differ in the extent to which they experience positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) rather independently or as bipolar opposites. Here, we examine the proposition that the nature of the relation between positive and negative affect in a person’s emotional experience is indicative of psychological well-being, in particular the experience of depressive symptoms, typically characterized by diminished positive affect (anhedonia) and increased negative affect (depressed mood).”

Smoking Cessation

“Ambulatory assessment of smoking behavior has greatly advanced our knowledge of the smoking cessation process. The current article first provides a brief overview of ecological momentary assessment for smoking cessation and highlights some of the primary advantages and scientific advancements made from this data collection method.”

“People attempting to stop smoking cigarettes (quitters) hold expectations about the extent to which their partner will provide helpful support during a quit attempt. However, these expectations may not align with their perceptions of the helpfulness of the support they receive. We examine expected and received helpful support during a quit attempt. We hypothesized that receiving less helpful support than expected (i.e., creating an expectancy violation) would be associated with the greatest return to smoking.”

“Craving has been proposed as a major contributor to addiction relapse and the influence of mood on craving and substance use has been extensively documented. However, information is lacking concerning the extent to which the magnitude of these effects may vary according to different types of substances. The aim of the present study was to compare the prospective links between emotions, craving and substance use in four groups of patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or opiate addiction.”

Statistics/Methodology