September 2017 Recent Literature

By October 1, 2017Recent Literature
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Adolescent Studies

In this study, low-income adolescents were examined regarding their obesogenic behaviors in correlation to the levels of violence they were exposed to. Results proved that exposure to violence is associated with unhealthy food consumption, poor sleep quality, and lack of physical activity in youth.

Because energy intake is an essential component for highly athletic youth, ecological momentary assessments are now being used in their dietary tracking.  A ‘Snap-N-Send’ method was applied, giving the participants a way of communicating their results on a more accurate basis. This study resulted in the feasibility of the ‘Snap-N-Send” method, proving the tool to be a valid form of dietary assessment.

This study analyzed the multiple facets that play a role in adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Through an EMA study over the course of two weekends, researchers gathered information on 150 adolescent youths that use the aforementioned substances simultaneously. The study concluded that adolescents who have parental supervision and are not associated with peers who use substances are more likely to veer away from substance use.

Alcohol & Drugs

Substance abuse is a growing problem and many users have the possibility of being at risk for HIV. In order to assess the probability and enlist the best intervention possible, researchers had participants use EMA as a potential method of intervention. Results showed that using the technology benefitted the participants greatly.

This study tested the exposure rates of advertising related to alcohol in our adolescents’ daily lives. 589 youths partook in this experiment, reporting every time they were exposed to an alcohol-related advertisement. This EMA study took place over the course of 10 months and results found that adolescents frequently view these types of advertisements on a daily basis.

Diet & Nutrition

Through the use of EMA, this study analyzed the stress levels of women who have symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Results show that participating women had increasing high stress levels before indulging in a binge eating episode and decreased level following the episode.

Although laboratory results have found appetitive conditioning to be effective, the same conditioning has not been tested in a daily-life setting. Researchers took on this challenge by implementing two studies, one with 5 days and the other with 15 days, through EMA. The conclusion showed that participants easily adjusted to using the appetitive conditioning technique outside of the lab, proving the study to be just as effective in any ecological environment.

Snacking in between meals can give boosts of energy that are much needed throughout a busy day. Yet, snacking may only be beneficial for specific people. This EMA study analyzes the reported energy levels of participants ranging in age from 20-50, both male and female. The study shows how intake levels increase or decrease depending upon positive and negative affects. Results displayed the differences among age and gender based on reported affects throughout the day.

Potential predictions could be made when associated with binge eating among adults with obesity. Through a 2 week EMA study, researchers examined whether positive or negative affect, along with other factors, could be linked to the possibility of increased binge eating. Results proved to demonstrate important distinctions among valence and stability in affective relationships.

In order to gain proof that the mobile reminder of mindful eating is effective, a 3-7 month EMA trial was conducted. Findings suggest that mobile intervention has the potential to be helpful for participants struggling with craving-related eating and weight-gain.

Emotion & Regulation

Depression and anxiety was thought to have increased when a person focused more on self image, rather than showing compassion. Experience sampling was used in a 10 day period, following up every 6 weeks, testing the participants based on their social interactions. The theory was proved correct through these efforts and showed that when a person is more compassionate, depression will decrease.

Researchers hypothesized that the time of day a smartphone assessment is asked affects the response of the participant. After gathering data from individuals over a course of 8 weeks, findings suggested the hypothesis to be correct.

With the use of EMA, a study was conducted to analyze social media users and the stability of their behaviors. Results found that the process used to gain data proved to be 96% accurate in a large population of Twitter users. Researchers were also able to come to the conclusion that participants suffering from bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were twice as likely to have high levels of mood instability.

General Psychological Topics

During this study, researchers analyzed the reactions of partners in close and distant social interactions. It was concluded that interactions with close partners had more positive approval versus interactions with distant partners.

 

For this EMA study, researchers hypothesized that extensive hunger and sexual arousal were thought to lead to off-task thinking and decreased productivity. The study concluded that hunger, but not sexual arousal, led to an increased likelihood of mind-wandering.

Does the transition to fatherhood increase the prenatal hormone levels and postnatal paternal involvement in soon-to-be fathers? 25 men participated in the study, using experience sampling as a means to find if their hormones suggested the yearning for paternal involvement with their newly arriving children. The study concluded that no correlation in prenatal involvement and hormone levels was found, but data collection is still underway for the postnatal theory.

The use of mobile devices has entrapped many, becoming the main path of communication in daily lives. Using experience sampling, the study concluded that the use of mobile devices to communicate has created larger networks of social relationships, decreasing intimate relationships among individuals.

Medical Topics

EMA was proved to be valuable in this study, as researchers analyzed whether or not surgeon’s base their communication techniques on the characteristics of their individual patients. Their hypothesis was correct, as the numerous interviews and data collections concluded that surgeons use their patient’s characteristic as a template for communication.

Differences in postconcussive symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury versus other brain injuries were studied with the use of experience sampling. Over the first 14 days after hospital release, participants answered various questions regarding pain, emotion, and overall well-being. Studies concluded that many reported symptoms of headaches and concentration difficulties.  

Physical Activity

A study was conducted to analyze the general activity of urban seniors and the likelihood of their exploration beyond their residential tracts. With the use of 60 senior citizens and iPhones, researchers were able to assess their activity on a daily basis through the use of EMA. Results found that seniors spend nearly 40% of their time outside of their residential neighborhoods.

71 adult dog owners participated in this study, questioning whether or not dogs influence physical activity in a more positive affect. After 12 days of surveying, results showed that the company of a dog did not make the owner more active, but the owners did respond with more positive affect when being active with the dog.

Data collections from 97 African Americans from ages 55 and older were used in research regarding the feasibility of EMA studies among older populations. The analysis concluded that EMA is a useful tool for the elderly and is proven to be applicable.

Physiological Sensors

Using 72 subjects, researchers hypothesized that the location of the participants would affect the answers to the EMA surveys. By combining ecological momentary assessments and global positioning systems, researchers analyzed the impact of urban environments and the accuracy behind planned ecological momentary interventions. The study found that their hypothesis proved to be true, stating that spatial accuracy was an important aspect in their study.

Psychopathology

Environmental factors potentially play a role in the emotional identification for females with and without anorexia nervosa. In the study, a two-day EMA survey was conducted between the two concentrated groups. Data reported that emotional identification improved throughout the day in females without anorexia nervosa, but decreased for the female adolescents with the disorder.

With the recruitment of 133 women diagnosed with DSM-IV BN, researchers studied the correlation between recorded behaviors and positive/negative affect ratings regarding the disorder. Using EMA, a conclusion was made that bulimic behaviors are reinforced negatively and support the notion of overall affective dysregulation.

Using the regression tree modeling as a form of analysis is thought to be very beneficial for tracking strengths and weaknesses in patient intervention. This paper examines the multiple reasons the model could prove to be helpful or harming under different circumstances.

Suicide ideation (SI) is a major problem that is faced by many on a daily basis. Researchers have found a potential way of predicting what makes a person more likely to experience SI throughout their day. After being released from hospitalization due to recent suicide attempts, patients were given a seven day EMA and results found that environmental and social factors both play in a role in SI.

Smoking Cessation

Tobacco and e-cigarette products have been marketed in all aspects of daily life, including online and on social media. In hopes of measuring marketing exposure, a 28 day EMA study was conducted, asking participants to record each time they noticed a tobacco advertisement. The study was proven to be successful and EMA was deemed a useful tool in marketing analysis.

In this study, EMA is used to process whether or not self-reporting is effective when associated with daily cigarette counts. The model shows how self-reporting can be biased and proposes ways of adjustment to correct analysis of heaped-only data sets.

Daily mood fluctuations could potentially be a cause of nicotine dependence among young adult smokers. Through a 21 day EMA study, researchers were able to conclude that positive moods are associated with the amount of cigarettes consumed throughout the day.

Statistics/Methodology

A new android library is introduced as a mobile framework for EMA research and interventions. The main purpose for this new technology is to be mindful of contextual triggers and ensure that ecological momentary assessments reach their full potential for each user.

A study was conducted to analyze the acceptance rate of EMA use among young men who have sex with men (MSM). Through a series of text message and phone call based ecological momentary assessments, researchers were able to conclude that different methods were accepted among young MSM.